陕西发现古代男性面霜!网友:邹忌形貌昳丽的原因找到了……

近期考古人员证实,在陕西刘家洼遗址出土的一个铜罐内发现了我国最早的男性化妆品:一种具有美白功效的面霜,距今有两千多年的历史。

这或许表明 “精致美男子”从春秋时期(公元前770-476年)开始就成为了一种流行风尚。

位于陕西渭南市澄城县的刘家洼遗址是春秋早中期芮国的首都。

2017年,考古专家在刘家洼一处男性贵族墓中发现了一个精美的密封小铜罐,罐内保存有6克的残留物,引起业界广泛关注。

Researchers confirmed recently that traces of a substance found in a jar over 2,000 years old are a cosmetic face cream for men that was used to whiten the skin, illustrating that the desire to be physically attractive as measured by the standards of that period, is a shared wish of both ancient and modern man.

After several years of complex analysis, six grams of residue in a delicate, sealed bronze jar found in 2017 in the grave of an ancient Chinese nobleman of the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC) is thought to likely be a cosmetic, adding a significant new piece to the puzzle of early human activity, experts said.

经过数年的化学分析,该残留物被证实为由牛脂作为基质混合一水碳酸钙颗粒,一种美白面霜。

“这既是中国迄今最早的男性化妆品,也是中国已知最早的面脂,将中国先民制作美容面脂的历史提前了1000多年。” 陕西省考古研究院刘家洼芮国遗址考古现场负责人孙战伟说。

After completing a complex chemical analysis, researchers proved the residue was made of ruminant fat mixed with monohydrocalcite that was probably used as a whitening face cream, said Sun Zhanwei, a researcher of the Shaanxi Academy of Archaeology, who led the Liujiawa field excavation project.

"It's the oldest cosmetic for males ever discovered in China and the oldest face cream so far. It is more than 1,000 years older than previous written records," he said.

孙战伟说,化妆品在《韩非子》、《诗经》、《山海经》等文献中虽有记载,但描述简单,也没有考古实物验证。

中国所知首次记录面脂制作方法的古文献是南北朝时期《齐民要术》:“用牛髓。牛髓少者,用牛脂和之。若无髓,空用脂亦得也。”此次刘家洼遗址美容面脂的发现,表明中国东周先民就已经制作并使用以油脂为基质的美容面脂,这比《齐民要术》记载的要早1000多年,从而将中国先民制作面脂的历史提前了1000多年。

中国历史上已知对男性化妆记载比较多的是三国时期的美男子曹植、何晏等贵族阶层。而最新研究则证实,早在春秋早期中国就已存在男性化妆的社会风尚。“男性使用美白化妆品除了美容作用外,也和当时大变革的社会环境相关联。” 孙战伟说。

Most historical records of males using cosmetics have been found in the era of Three Kingdoms (220-280). They tell the stories of famous handsome noblemen, such as Cao Zhi and He Yan. But the new findings showed that certain social customs existed far earlier, he said.

"Besides beautifying the skin, use of cosmetics is also related to the social environment, which underwent drastic changes."

他说,该类微型铜容器多出土于贵族墓葬,是贵族彰显其身份的一种表现。“贵族阶层使用化妆品,在引领‘时尚’的同时,也是贵族阶层内部文化认同的外在表现。这说明男子化妆的历史悠久,充分体现出了古人生活的精致和对美的追求。虽然这位男性贵族在什么场合会用到此面霜尚未可知,能被埋到墓里,说明这个东西很珍贵。”

同时,刘家洼先民将牛脂应用于美容面脂等手工业的制作中,也为中国古代化妆品产业兴起以及油脂在手工业中的应用等研究提供了重要的参考。

Small bronze jars are often found in graves of nobles, and are a symbol of the aristocracy.

"Nobles used cosmetics as a way to lead fashion trends and to express their cultural identity," Sun said. "They also confirm the pursuit of a refined life and beauty among ancient Chinese men. Although we have no idea on what occasions the Liujiawa nobleman might have used the face cream, it should be regarded as a precious item, as it was important enough to be put into a grave."

The find also provides an important reference for studies concerning the rise of the cosmetics industry and application of fat in the handicrafts industry, Sun added.

该铜罐的边缘呈椭圆形,最长轴距5.5厘米,最短4.3厘米;高5.9厘米。表面有精致而考究的花纹。该小罐放置在墓内的西北部,而其它青铜礼器集中放置在东南角,这说明二者的功用不同。

孙战伟说,这类器物以往曾被发现过,有学者也推测其功用应该是化妆品盒,但当时缺少考古实物证据。该器物发现时盖、器合体,保存完整,其内仍保留有块状残留物,团队及时将样品送中国科学院大学进行相关检测分析。

The rim of the jar is elliptical, with a major axis of 5.5 centimeters and a minor axis of 4.3 cm. The height of the jar is 5.9 cm. Its surface has complex and refined artistic patterns.

The jar was found in the northwestern corner of the grave, far from other bronze containers in the southeastern corner that were used for sacrificial rituals, banquets and funerals. The placement suggests that the function of the jar is different from the others, Sun said.

Some archaeologists suspected the jar contained cosmetics, but there was no hard evidence. Samples of the residue were sent for analysis to the University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing.

来自中国科学院大学、陕西省考古研究院、北京大学和德国马普学会人类历史科学研究所的专家开展合作,利用现代先进技术手段,对微型铜罐内的残留物完成综合分析。

论文提到:化妆品在中国有很长的历史,但其起源不甚知晓。推测有可能是起源于春秋时期,但其制造者和使用情况不明。该面霜的发现为我国早期化妆品生产和化妆品容器的流行提供了案例,成为了我国早期化妆品产业兴起的重要依据。

"Cosmetics have a long history in China, though their origin has remained unclear. They potentially originated in the Spring and Autumn Period but little is known about its early manufacture and use," according to a paper co-written by researchers from the university, together with the Shaanxi Academy of Archaeology, Peking University and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Germany. The paper was published in the journal Archaeometry in February.

"This work provides an early example of cosmetics production in China and, together with the prevalence of similar cosmetic containers during this period, suggests the rise of an incipient cosmetics industry," the paper said.

论文还提到,面霜中的一种成分一水碳酸钙来自于石灰岩洞中的一种特殊钟乳石“月奶石”。并且很有可能是道家人士从洞穴中采集来的。

道家起源于春秋时期,推崇长寿、永生和救赎。道家崇拜洞穴,有在“洞天福地”举办宗教仪式的传统。因为洞穴有“子宫”和“重生”的隐喻义。月奶石的开采以及其在面霜中的使用说明古代道家人士和贵族阶层交往密切,参与了他们的化妆品生产。

The paper added that monohydrocalcite, an ingredient in the cream, came from moonmilk, a special stalactite found in some limestone caves, and was likely collected by Taoists.

The Taoist school, a philosophical discipline originating in the Spring and Autumn Period, features the doctrine of longevity, immortality and salvation. Taoists admire caves and have hosted rituals in prestigious ones. Caves are considered metaphorical wombs that enable rebirth. Exploitation of the moonmilk reflects the link between early Taoists and cosmetics production for the aristocracy, the paper said.

无独有偶,近日,考古工作者对山西垣曲北白鹅墓地出土的铜盒中的残留物分析发现,该残留物是以油脂、植物精油、朱砂及以方解石、霰石为主要成分的化妆品,证实了其应为高等级女性贵族盛放、储存化妆品的容器。

Archeologists found that the residue in bronze boxes unearthed at a grave in Yuanqu county in Shanxi province are cosmetics composed of fat, plant essential oil, cinnabar, calcite and aragonite, and used by female nobles.

人们对美的追求是共通的。考古发现,在西方,古希腊人、古罗马人、古雅典人、埃及人也都使用过各种各样的化妆品来修饰自己的容貌。

公元前470-460年,用来装化妆品的小盒子或圆形盒子

古希腊人和古罗马人在面部化妆品中曾使用白铅和红铅,使用铅而呈现的极其苍白的面容一直流行到18世纪。埃及艳后克利奥佩特拉使用了黑色眼影粉,一种由油和粉状金属(通常是铅、锑、锰或铜)混合而成的眼线笔,以及一系列其它化妆品。她甚至还写了一本关于化妆品的书。

Ancient Greeks and Romans used lead in facial cosmetics, which resulted in an extremely pale face. The fashion prevailed until the 18th century. The queen of Egypt, Cleopatra, used black eye shadow powder, eyeliner made of oil and metal powder, and other cosmetics. She even wrote a book about it.

希腊妇女也使用天然成份,例如从泥土中提取的赭石及从地衣中提取的染料用于胭脂,用灰烬和煤烟灰用于眉毛上色。古希腊人也经常把他们最好的化妆品和香水留在坟墓里。

Ancient Greek women used ocher from soil and dyes extracted from lichen to make rouge, and ashes to color their eyebrows. They also tended to put favorite cosmetics and perfume into their graves.

从古至今,人类从未停止追求美貌。这可以说是一种对美的向往和对精致生活的追求。在“悦己”之余,或许也为获得更多来自他人的尊重和青睐。

记者:陈美玲

实习生:李修智

综合:中国日报、山西晚报·文博山西、丝路遗产

来源:中国日报双语新闻